The iranian peoples revolution is only a point in the start of the revolution of the great world of islam. The islamic revolution occurred in 1979, in the muslim majority country of iran. In 2012, iran were supposed to play serbian team, partizan belgrade, but iran cancelled the. Consists of countries such as israel, iran, iraq, saudi arabia, and egypt. Would iran be doing much better now if the islamic revolution. Islamic revolution appears to bear little ideological resemblance to revolutions in the west or to irans constitutional revolution of 190511. Guardians of the islamic revolution deep blue university of. The islamic republic of iran iran is an islamic country, but not an arab country.
The islamic revolution in iran is also described in daniel 8. Iranian revolutions in comparative perspective oxford academic. Iran, meaning the land of aryans in persian, is a relatively large country enjoying a strategic position in the persian gulf. Finally, part four is devoted to the analysis of the islamic revolutions impact on turkey and the muslim population of the former soviet union. The definitive history of the iraniraq war, and revolutionary iran, essential for understanding the country today. Understanding the differing meanings of iranian and persian learn about the bloody iraniraq war of 198088. He chooses the iranian constitutional revolution in 19063 the revolution which led to the establishment of parliament and modern law in iran and compares the postrevolutionary reformists and conservatives points of view toward this historical event. What were the main events of the islamic revolution of iran.
But in little more than a generation, iran had changed from a traditional, conservative, and rural society to one that was industrial, modern, and urban. Pdf foreign policy of iran after islamic revolution. All laws passed by the majles must be approved by the council of guardians to ensure that they agree with islamic principles. The legislature, known as the majles, has 270 members elected to 4year terms. As iran exported its shiite revolution, sunni arabs resisted. Its constitution was approved in 1979 and amended in 1989. Part three studies irans efforts to export the islamic revolution into saudi arabia and the gaza strip, and her relations with the syrian government. The newsmagazine for teens tehran, irans capital, was in a state of revolt on jan. Iranian revolution, also called islamic revolution, persian enqelabe eslami, popular uprising in iran in 197879 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on february 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an islamic republic. Following the overthrow of the shahs government on 11 february 1979 22 bahman 57, members of the old regime, including senior generals, were executed by revolutionary leadership. Background and causes of the iranian revolution wikipedia.
For over 30 years the islamic republic has resisted widespread condemnation, sanctions, and sustained attacks by iraq in an eightyear war. The islamic republic of iran is doomed politico magazine. As iran exported its shiite revolution, sunni arabs resisted irans shiites tried to spread their ideology after the 1979 revolution, but have met resistance in. One might also recall those japanese and the prussian landlords who had no institutional base for chal. Well, its a little complicated and since other posts have deftly answered the root causes of what led to the revolution, i am just going to list key events, including those leading up to the eventual protests of 197879.
The protests sweeping iran belie the once popular notion that the spirit of the green revolution that nearly toppled the islamic republic in 2009 has been extinguished. Formerly known as persia, iran adopted its current name in 1935. Jaafari school of thought is the official religion. Mar 27, 2014 the definitive history of the iran iraq war, and revolutionary iran, essential for understanding the country today. When ayatollah ruhollah khomeini took power in iran 35 years ago on february 11, irans filmmakers had good reason to worry. Islamist revolutionaries opposed the western secular policies of the authoritarian shah of iran mohammed reza pahlavi supporters of ayatollah khomeini organized protests in opposition to the authoritarian government of the shah. The shah, irans ruler for nearly four decades, had fled the country. It has an elected president and elected governmental bodies at the national, provincial and local levels for which all males and females from the age of 18 on up may vote, which are.
The movements called for a return to a golden past age, and were directed against westernbacked governments. The islamic republic the iranian revolution, 197879. Doctor of philosophy history in the university of michigan. Remembering irans 1979 islamic revolution as part of a series of conversations marking 1979 as a seminal year in the muslim world, steve inskeep talks to iranianborn journalist kasra naji about. Iran 2002, compares two approaches in writing history textbooks. Understanding the differing meanings of iranian and persian learn about the bloody iran iraq war of 198088. In the rest of daniel, this ruler together with other middle eastern powers are referred to as the king of the south. Nevertheless, for the iranian world the advent of islam meant not liberation but defeat and conquest by an alien people. Ruhollah khomeini ruhollah khomeini centre greeting supporters after returning to tehran, february 1979.
The iranian revolution past, present and future glittering achievements, the sassanid empire was characterised by extreme oppression of the downtrodden masses. The king of the south is a spiritual force, who works through a variety of islamic nations. Iran has stirred up many people against the western nations. Milani offers new insights into the causes and profound consequences of irans islamic revolution. The islamic republic of iran began with the iranian revolution. Islamic revolution simple english wikipedia, the free. The shah, iran s ruler for nearly four decades, had fled the country. There is the world of the living, which we finally, in one way or another, succumb to, and then there is the domain of the dead that, like an imaginary friend or foe or a secret concubine, constantly beckons, reminding us of our loss. In this fully revised and expanded second edition, dr. Here is an overview of the events that led up to the iranian revolution, as well as the events in the revolution and the aftermath.
The islamic republic of iran is an islamic theocracy headed by a supreme leader. Iran came to usa and played basketball against nba teams. The clergy first showed themselves to be a powerful political force in opposition to iran s monarch with the 1891 tobacco protest boycott that effectively destroyed an unpopular concession granted by the shah giving a british company a monopoly over buying and selling tobacco in iran. Irans chief executive is the president, who is elected by the people for a 4year term. The first major demonstrations to overthrow shah mohammad reza pahlavi began in january 1978. Iran s chief executive is the president, who is elected by the people for a 4year term.
The strict code of censorship ushered in by the islamic revolution. The iranian revolution of february 1979 middle east. The concept of exporting the islamic revolution derives from a particular worldview that perceives islamic revolution as the means whereby muslims and nonmuslims can liberate themselves from the oppression of tyrants who serve the interests of international imperialism. Second edition the making of irans islamic revolution. Celebrating its 35th anniversary, iran s islamic revolution shocked the world and redrew the map of global alliances. What are the main points of the islamic revolution in 1979. Journalist efandiari returned to her native iran in 1992 after an absence of 14 years, and interviewed professional women who had remained in the country despite the suspension of womens rights and the enforcement of rigid dress codes after the 1979 revolution. The islamic revolution and iran under ayatollah khomeini, 1979 1989. Islamic republic of iran national report for central asian flyway meeting 10 june 2005, new delhi, india a. Ayatollah khomeini returns from being exiled in france. From the islamic revolution to the islamic republic of iran. Would iran be doing much better now if the islamic. With respect to the islamic content of the iranian revolution, which was a movement for the. Trustees of princeton university iran s islamic revolution in comparative perspective authors.
Eager to exploit an opportunity and regain access to. The dynasty that the revolution overthrew the pahlavi dynasty was known for its autocracy, its focus on modernization and westernization as well as its disregard for religious and democratic measures in irans constitution the founder of the dynasty, army general reza shah pahlavi, replaced islamic laws with western ones, and forbade traditional islamic clothing, separation of. The reason for the revolution a violent overthrow of a government was that many iranians disliked the shah mohammed reza pahlavi ayatollah khomeini organized protests to overthrow the government. Iran s islamic revolution after the overthrow of the shah, an american ally became one of its biggest adversaries. The reason for the revolution a violent overthrow of a government was that many iranians disliked the shah mohammed reza pahlavi.
Irans islamic revolution after the overthrow of the shah, an american ally became one of its biggest adversaries. The islamic revolution occurred in 1979, in the muslim country iran. When ayatollah ruhollah khomeini took power in iran 35 years ago on february 11, iran s filmmakers had good reason to worry. Outwardly, with a swiftly expanding economy and a rapidly modernizing infrastructure, everything was going well in iran. Ideology, politics, and the development of military power in iran 19792009 by. Shia clergy or ulama have historically had a significant influence in iran.
Just because they both sell oil, doesnt make them similar in other aspects. Trustees of princeton university irans islamic revolution in comparative perspective authors. Casualties of the iranian revolution casualties of the. As iran exported its shiite revolution, sunni arabs resisted irans shiites tried to spread their ideology after the 1979 revolution, but have met resistance in arab states led by sunnis. The newsmagazine for teens tehran, iran s capital, was in a state of revolt on jan. Shapour bakhtiar as his new prime minister with the help of supreme army councils couldnt control the situation in the country anymore. Fifth, even though land reform contributed to the political stability of rural communities, it indirectly caused tension in urban areas as millions of landless peasants migrated to the major cit ies to become the foot soldiers of the islamic revolution. Jun 18, 2019 in the late 1970s, the pahlavi dynasty was overthrown and replaced by a new islamic republic of iran.
Milani offers new insights into the causes and profound consequences of iran s islamic revolution. It is larger than alaska and roughly equal to the size of the united kingdom, france, spain, and germany combined. Ayatollah khomeini organized protests to overthrow the government. That these hostages managed to free themselves from u. In some of its basic characteristics, the revolution did not conform to the usual norms of western revolutions, because the state did not represent just an ordinary dictatorship but an absolute and arbitrary system that lacked political legitimacy and a social base virtually across the whole of the society. Geopolitical designation of the area stretching from the eastern mediterranean sea to the western side of the indian subcontinent. Islamist revolutionaries opposed the western secular policies of the authoritarian shah of iran mohammed reza pahlavi. Iran is bordered on the north by armenia, azerbaijan, turkmenistan, and the caspian sea. The revolution of february 1979 was a revolt of the society against the state. Ideology and irans revolution tony blair institute for global. Drawing on dozens of personal interviews with the officials of the islamic republic and on recently released documents, he presents a provocative analysis of the dynamics and characteristics. The islamic republic of iran is located in southwest asia, bordering in the south with persian gulf and oman sea and from the north with the caspian sea. I dont know where iran would be, but i can tell you where it is. In 2012, iran were supposed to play serbian team, partizan belgrade, but iran cancelled the match when partizan hired an israeli coach.
The handwovencloth industry has survived stiff competition from modern textile mills. Aug 17, 2009 remembering iran s 1979 islamic revolution as part of a series of conversations marking 1979 as a seminal year in the muslim world, steve inskeep talks to iranianborn journalist kasra naji about. List of books and articles about iranian revolution. Pdf this article is to explain the policies that have been undertaken by government of iran in foreign affairs since islamic revolution 1979 find, read and. Meanwhile, in khozestan, the center of irans oil industry, members of the arabicspeaking population organized and demanded a larger share of oil revenues for the region, more jobs for local inhabitants, the use of arabic as a semiofficial language, and a larger degree of local autonomy. All laws passed by the majles must be approved by the council of guardians to ensure that. As shah he introduce many reforms in the country for economic as well as social development of the country. Time line of the iranian revolution 1963 1975 1961 1981 1965 19791941 1953 1970 1980 1964 1962 1978. The iranian revolution directed by ayatollah khomeini presented a fundamental challenge to the existing world order. Here, the independence of the iranian religious elite, of the shiite. The concept of exporting the islamic revolution derives from a particular worldview that perceives islamic revolution as the means whereby muslims and nonmuslims can liberate themselves from the oppression of tyrants who. Supporters of ayatollah khomeini organized protests in opposition to the authoritarian government of the shah. The role and contribution of ayatollah ruhollah khomeini article pdf available may 2012 with 12,543 reads how we measure reads.
Shah of iran, mohammad reza pahalvi 19191980 became the ruler of iran in 1941. Iran and the world in the age of the ayatollahs by ray takeyh 2009 1979 by ingo taubhorn and maziar moradi 2010. Iran possesses a very rich and divers bird fauna, despite the fact that large portion of the country are arid to semiarid. These disturbances were put down, but not without violence. Casualties of the iranian revolution casualties of the islamic government casualties of the islamic government following the overthrow of the shahs government on 11 february 1979 22 bahman 57, members of the old regime, including senior generals, were executed by revolutionary leadership. Each locality prides itself on a special design and quality of carpet that bears its name, such as kashan, kerman, khorasan, e. The islamic revolution in iran happened because of politic. The country, which stands on the high iranian plateau, contains diverse ethnic, linguistic, and tribal groups. Ten days later bakhtiar went into hiding, eventually to find exile in paris. Consists of countries such as israel, iran, iraq, saudi arabia. Iranian women after the islamic revolution dr ansia khaz ali more than thirty years have passed since the triumph of the islamic revolution in iran, yet there remain a number of questions and ambiguities about the way the islamic republic and its laws deal with. The revolution was mostly nonviolent, although there were incidents of armed struggle. The sense that in both agriculture and industry too much had been attempted too soon.898 1453 687 880 1497 1026 225 24 825 635 138 375 713 73 476 1406 205 1344 850 1113 711 366 1514 175 175 261 3 665 609 947 119 779 621 476 1427 1641 1366 1028 1491 405 146 1076 1332 707